The role of non-governmental civil society organizations since the 1980s in developmental discourse and the practice of development; the view of these organizations as a substitute for the state, and the general progress of development. An overview of the history and the increase in the number of civil society organizations, and related concepts and issues such as welfare, civil society, pressure groups, lobbies, and litigation in the framework of understanding development and democracy, overcoming poverty, and empowering women in society. Focus on the Global South and its relationship to the Global North, concentrating on the Middle East and Palestine .