Prominent schools, trends and issues in contemporary Arab thought since the 18th century. The emergence of intellectual movements concerned with Arabs, particularity during the decay of the Ottoman Empire and the division of what came later to be known as the Arab World among European colonial powers. The movements’ positions on religion and nationalism, and the resulting doctrines of revivalism, reformism and revolutionary thought (religious or secular). The intellectual legacy of these movements and their impact on the formation of Arab nationalisms, their anti-colonial role, the establishment of the nation-state and its position on keys issues, such as secularism, democracy, dependency and globalization.
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