The logic and procedures of scientific research: choice of research topic and problem, literature search (reading, summarizing and documenting sources), formulating hypotheses, methods of data collection (laboratory experiments, field experiments, surveys, content analysis, participant observation, and ethnography), data collection instruments (questionnaire, interview, observation, experiment, participatory research). Operationalizing theoretical concepts, means of measurement, criteria for measuring validity and reliability, unit of analysis, types of samples, unit of measurement, types and levels of statistical analysis and the presentation and discussion of results, writing research reports.