Rules of obligation, including means of voluntary execution (satisfaction, clearance, and combination of liabilities) or compulsory execution (in-kind execution or execution by means of indemnity). Legal methods to protect execution, including indirect action, mock action, and right to confinement. Characterizations amending effects of obligation, including conditions and deferred terms. Rules of joint liability between creditors and joint liability between debtors. Cases of terminated obligation, including release, impossible execution, and limitation causing dismissal of the action.

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