Studying planning of different levels (local, semi-regional, regional, national, international), the goals and interrelations of various types of planning (integrated, economic, urban, demographic).  Examining  the relation  between planning and natural resources in terms of their type, quantity and distribution.  Characteristics of human factors in terms of gender, age, labor power and educational level and their impact on planning process. Major planning  theories with examples, planning and sustainable development, indicators and measurement techniques  of the sustainable development in the planning process, legislations relevant to sustainable planning, examples of various types of planning , problems facing the planning process in its different stages (pre-, during and post-implementation).