Elements and applications of measurement systems, instrument types and performance characteristics, errors and noise during measurement process and how to treat them, grounding techniques, types of bridges and their applications, sensors/transducers: basic characteristic and selected practical examples of transducers. Analog vs. digital measurements, analog to digital conversion (ADC) and digital to analog conversion (DAC) techniques and problems, basics of sampling. Various types of indicating instruments, structure and basic components of different measuring instruments, oscilloscopes, electronic measurement, data acquisition systems (DAS) using computers, case study of a selected data acquisition card.

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