Modes of expressing affiliation in the Arabic-speaking region since the eighteenth century, under the Islamic Caliphate. The emergence of nationalist movements and their impact on the nation-state in Europe; study of the social and economic transformations in human societies throughout the agricultural, industrial and technological stages (plough - sword -pen) employing European theoretical schools on nationalism. The decline of the Ottoman Empire and the colonial division of the Arab region, and its impact on the rise of Arab nationalist, intellectual and political movements which led the separation efforts from the Ottoman Empire; the formation of liberation movements and their role in the establishment of Arab nation-states; the impact of the Zionist colonization of Palestine on the rise of the Palestinian Arab identity and Arab unity and the impact of globalization, hegemony, and neo-colonialism on the idea of nationalism.
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